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2023.03.21 18:33 patrone84 What’s happening to the paint on my front door?
2023.03.21 18:10 WilliamsLakeNewsBot Sunshine for a spring ski at Bull Mountain near Williams Lake - Williams Lake Tribune - Williams Lake Tribune
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2023.03.21 17:12 ColdBlackWater Spring and All by William Carlos Williams
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2023.03.21 14:56 North_egg_ What did I do wrong? Had to touch up a few spots on new paint job and the despite being pretty dry it looks way different. Painting near ceiling also looks different.
2023.03.21 13:46 jdurr3 [WTS] William Moorcroft Vase Art Deco period 1928 - 36 Spring Floral
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2023.03.21 13:30 Albertjweasel The Lesser Celandine
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2023.03.21 13:23 plainenglish2 “Mr. Queen” (historical and cultural backgrounders for international viewers, with references to other K-dramas)
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Index: Introduction; K-dramas are meant first (or primarily) for Korean viewers and only second for international viewers; A. The historical figures who were fictionalized in this drama; the rivalry between the Andong Kim and Poonyang Jo clans and “sedo politics” (royal in-law politics); lawsuit filed by descendants of a historical figure against “The Princess’s Man”; connections of “Mr. Queen” to “Moonlight Drawn By Clouds” aka “Love in the Moonlight” and to “Kingdom” Season 2, Ep. 4; B. Eps. 8 and 10: Persecution of Catholics during the Joseon Dynasty; the only K-drama I’ve seen that depicted the Catholic persecution in Joseon Korea is “Yi San, Wind in the Palace” (2007); C. Ep. 8: Korean seesaw (“neolttwigi”); D. Ep. 12: Surit-nal (Dano Festival); ceremonial robes and head gear of Joseon kings; E. Ep. 14: Ice as a valuable commodity during the Joseon Dynasty; F. Ep. 14: Donghak (religion, movement, peasant revolution); G. Ep. 16: Difference between “Jo” and “Jong” in the posthumous (temple) names of the Joseon kings; the Joseon kings’ royal portraits and dramas such as “Painter of the Wind” and “Saimdang”; H. Ep. 16: Secret Royal Investigators during the Joseon Dynasty; secret royal inpectors as depicted in “100 Days My Prince” and “Under The Queen's Umbrella”; I. Miscellaneous notes: Ep. 11: the fight with fans as weapons; “jangot” or head covering for noblewomen during the Joseon Dynasty ; the beautiful bridge across the pond in Ep. 1 and other episodes
K-dramas are meant first (or primarily) for Korean viewers and only second for international viewers. Just like in other dramas, the historical, cultural, and political references in “Mr. Queen” are well known to the Korean viewers. On the other hand, we, the international viewers, must dig deep into Wikipedia and other sources (or post questions in forums like this) so that we can understand what’s going on.
For example, some people who have seen “Mr. Queen” said that they couldn’t stand the court politics or the infighting between the different factions because the drama didn’t provide any context. Well, the court politics and the infighting between the different factions happened between the Andong Kim and Poonyang Jo clans, which are well known to Korean viewers and thus, no context was necessary.
When “Saimdang” was first broadcast in 2017, I joined the on-air discussions of the drama in the Soompi Forums. In that forum, whenever I had questions about the drama, I had two go-to persons: for questions about Korean language, culture, and history, I asked “gerrytan8063”; whenever I had questions about Chinese characters used in the drama, I asked “liddi.” I haven’t joined the Soompi discussions after I found reddit, and so I don’t know if “gerrytan8063” and “liddi” are still active there.
Where can we turn to when we, as international viewers, have questions about Korean language, culture, and history as they relate to K-dramas? There’s Quora, of course; “bodashiri” in Tumblr has a form in his website where he/she says, “Ask me anything.” Also, since 2012, the “Annals of the Joseon Dynasty” is being translated in English, with the project supposed to be finished in 2034. Certain portions of the English translation are available online, as you can read in “Globalization of Korean history” from the official Korean government history website.
Oh, maybe we can also use ChatGPT in learning about the historical, cultural, and language issues that we come across in K-dramas.
The very first K-drama that I watched in full was the 2014 blockbuster “My Love From The Star” starring Jun Ji-hyun and Kim Soo-hyun. In this drama, I first heard the term “Joseon Dynasty” and learned how the dynasty heavily influenced what Korea is today.
Before “My Love From The Star” however, I had seen one or two brief scenes from the 2003 blockbuster drama “A Jewel in the Palace” (aka “Dae Jang Geum”) starring Lee Young-ae. Sometime in 2005 or 2006, “A Jewel in the Palace” began sweeping the Philippines. Every night at around 6 o’clock, the streets would become empty, with people shouting to each other as they rush to their homes, “Jang Geum na!” (in English, “It’s Jang Geum time!”). Since that time, “A Jewel in the Palace” has been broadcast in the Philippines five times; that’s how popular it is among Filipinos.
I watched “A Jewel in the Palace” in its entirety only in 2015. Since then, I’ve seen each episode around four or five times already; whenever I feel depressed, I rewatch Ep. 6 where Jang Geum was exiled to the herb garden outside the palace. Needless to say, Lee Young-ae is the love of my life. Next to Lee Young-ae, I love Han Hyo-joo (“Dong Yi”), Han Hye-jin (“Jumong”), Han Ga-in (“The Moon That Embraces The Sun”), Moon Chae-won (“The Princess’s Man”), Park Shin Hye (“The Royal Tailor”), Shin Se-kyung (“Six Flying Dragons”), Park Ha-sun (Queen In-hyun in “Dong Yi”), Nana (“Into The Ring”), and Go Ara (“The Joseon Magician”), in that order.
A. The historical figures who were fictionalized in this drama; lawsuit filed by descendants of a historical figure against “The Princess’s Man” (Soompi); the rivalry between the Andong Kim and Poonyang Jo clans and “sedo politics” (royal in-law politics)
The main characters in “Mr. Queen” are So-yong (Queen Cheorin), played by Shin Hye-sun, and King Cheoljong, played by Kim Jung-hyun. Some of the secondary characters are Queen Sunwon (Grand Queen Dowager) of the Andong Kim clan and Queen Shinjeong (Queen Dowager) of the Poongyang Jo clan.
“Mr. Queen” is fictional, with the following genres: historical, comedy, time travel, and body swap. But its characters and background events are inspired by historical figures and events. For example, the lead character (King Cheoljong) and his background facts — growing up destitute on Ganghwa Island, puppet of the Andong Kim clan, relatives persecuted as Catholics, etc. — are all based on history. Also, the conflict between the Andong Kim clan and Poonyang Jo clan is historical.
King Cheoljong in “Mr. Queen” is a highly fictionalized character that’s different from the historical King Cheoljong. The drama portrays him to be secretly plotting to establish himself as a strong ruler against two warring political factions — the Andong Kim clan (led by Grand Dowager Queen Sunwon) and the Pungyang Jo clan (led by Dowager Queen Sinjeong).
A-1. Historical figures who were fictionalized in “Mr. Queen”:
(1) King Cheoljong
The 25th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (25 July 1831 – 16 January 1864), he was a second cousin to the heirless Heonjong of Joseon, as well as a great-great grandson of Yeongjo of Joseon. He was chosen to become King by Senior Dowager Queen Sunwon (King Sunjo’s widow) and the powerful Andong Kim clan because he was illiterate and thus easy to manipulate.
The only surviving [cropped] image of King Cheoljong
(2) Queen Cheorin: wife of King Cheoljong, also known as Queen Dowager Myeongsun (27 April 1837 – 12 June 1878).
Queen Cheorin belonged to the Andong Kim clan.
(3) Grand Dowager Queen: Queen Sunwon (8 June 1789 – 21 September 1857), also known as Queen Dowager Myeonggyeong, was the spouse of Sunjo of Joseon. She served as regent of Korea from 1834–1841 and from 1849–1852.
(4) Queen Dowager: Queen Shinjeong, also known as Queen Dowager Hyoyu, (21 January 1809 - 4 June 1890) was the only wife of Crown Prince Hyomyeong of Joseon and mother of King Heonjong of Joseon.
Queen Shinjeong belonged to the Poonyang Jo clan.
A-2. “Mr. Queen” was criticized for distorting history. Among the things that was criticized is the drama’s portrayal of the Queen Dowager (Queen Shinjeong in history) as being heavily involved in shamanism.
From “Descendants of Sin Sook-joo sue The Princess’ Man” (Soompi): “According to the Seoul District Court, 108 descendants of old Sin claimed a damage suit of KRW 3 billion [2.2 million US dollars] against the broadcasting company and the writer for negatively distorting the image of their ancestor Sin Sook-joo from the Chosun era.”
This lawsuit was filed in 2011; I couldn’t find any information about what happened to this lawsuit.
A-3: Andong Kim clan, Poongyang Jo clan, and “sedo politics” (royal in-law politics)
From New World Encyclopedia:
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Andong Kim clan, who had provided the Joseon state with several queens, had seized power almost everywhere in Korea. The social stagnation that resulted was a breeding ground for unrest. Corruption and embezzlement from the treasury and its inevitable exploitation were taken to extreme levels, and reached staggering proportions. One rebellion after another was accompanied by natural disasters.
From “Exactly how much power did the Andong Kim Clan have in the Joseon court? How did they attain such power?” (Quora, by Michael L. Best) :
“How did the Andong Kim clan attain power? By intermarrying with the royal family, enthroning young and easy to control men as king, purging political rivals, and, very likely, killing off any king when they begin to threaten their power.”
The term “sedo politics” (royal in-law politics) describes the period 1800 to 1863 when national politics in Joseon was exclusively led by a few powerful royal in-law families, most notably the Andong Kim and Poongyang Jo clans.
From“Collusive Oligopolistic Politics: Sedo and the Political Structure of Early-Nineteenth-Century Choson Korea” by Tae Yeon Eom (2012 thesis, University of British Columbia):
In contemporary Korean historiography, the reign periods of King Sunjo (r. 1800-1834), King Hŏnjong (r.1834-1849), and King Ch’ŏlchong (r. 1849-1863) are generally called “The Era of Sedo Politics” in Chosŏn Korea (1392-1910). In contemporary Korean historiography, the political theme of sedo predominated after the death of King Chŏngjo (r. 1776-1800), when national politics was exclusively led by a few powerful royal in-law families, most notably the Andong Kim and P’ungyang Cho clans, for sixty-three years. Obviously, those two major clans enjoyed extensive political authority and high social status in the nineteenth century.
(1) Queen Shinjeong was portrayed by Chae Soo-bin in the 2016 hit “Moonlight Drawn By Clouds” aka “Love in The Moonlight." Queen Shinjeong’s husband Crown Prince Hyomyeong (King Munjo) was portrayed by Park Bo-gum.
(2) In Season 2 , Ep. 4 of “Kingdom,” Crown Prince Lee Chang visited in Ganghwa Island his distant relative Prince Noseong, an impoverished member of the royal family. The drama portrays Prince Noseong as a lowly fisherman but who’s a well-read man. This character was probably based on King Cheoljong (1831-1864), the last puppet king of the Andong Kim clan. Unlike the drama, however, in history, King Cheoljong was illiterate, which made it easy for him to be controlled by the Andong Kim clan.
“Kingdom” Season 2, Ep. 4
B. Eps. 8 and 10: References to the persecution of Catholics during the Joseon Dynasty
B-1. In Ep. 8, at around the 43:00 mark, Bong-hwan (Queen Cheorin) remembers what he learned in history classes about King Cheoljeong; among other things, he remembers that King Cheoljong’s “grandmother and aunt got killed by getting baptized.”
In Ep. 10, at around the 46:57 mark, the Royal Chef tells Queen Cheorin (Bong-hwan) that he lives alone because all of his family were killed in 1839. Queen Cheorin (Bong-hwan) then recalls that he was referring to the “Gihae Persecution.”
B-2. Some of the well-known persecution of Catholics during the Joseon Dynasty were the Sinyu Persecution of 1801, the Gihae Persecution of 1839, the Byeongo Persecution of 1846, and the Byeongin Persecution of 1866.
From “A Brief History of the Catholic Church in Korea” (WSJ) : “The Sinyu Persecution - In 1801, more than 300 people were killed as the ruling Joseon Dynasty, under newly ascended King Sunjo, staged a clampdown on the Catholic Church in Korea, ostensibly because the religion clashed with ideals of Neo-Confucianism and threatened the social hierarchical system. Yi Seung-hun was among those executed.”
From “Korean Catholicism marked by volatile history“ (Korean JoongAng Daily) : “Catholic believers suffered numerous rounds of persecution - the Sinhae Persecution (1791), the Sinyu Persecution (1801) and the Byeongin Persecution (1866) to name just a few - with about 10,000 missionaries and believers killed over a century.”
B-3. The only K-drama I’ve watched that depicted the persecution of Catholics during the Joseon Dynasty is “Yi San, A Wind in the Palace.” In Eps. 60-61, the brother of FL Sung Song-yeon and his fellow Catholics were blamed and arrested for an assassination attempt against King Jeongjo.
C. Ep. 8: Korean seesaw (“neolttwigi”)
In the early part of Ep. 8, Queen Cheorin and her attendant play on a “neolttwigi” (Korean seesaw).
2nd photo from National Geographic by W. Robert Moore, circa 1931
From Folkency: “Neolttwigi (lit. jumping on a board) refers to seesawing, a traditional entertainment practiced mainly by women during the Lunar New Year season. A large rectangular board is supported in its middle by a round hay bundle and two players take turns pushing hard on their end of the board with their feet in order to make the other end spring up.”
It is thought that Yangban women developed “neolttwigi” to see over the walls that surrounded their homes, as women in traditional Korea were rarely allowed out of their living compounds, except at night. (Wikipedia, citing Rodney P. Carlisle, Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society, Volume 1)
D. Ep. 12: Surit-nal (Dano Festival); ceremonial robes and head gear of Joseon kings
In Ep. 12, King Cheoljong presides over the Royal Banquet during the celebration of the Surit-nal (Dano Festival). His ceremonial robe is called “gujangbok,” while the head gear is called “myeonryugwan” (The Talking Cupboard) .
The robe and head gear were worn by the King and the Crown Prince during special events; with the head gear, the more the number of strings, the higher the rank. The jade object that he’s holding is called the “hol” (or “okgyu” depending on the type of jade used to make it.
E. Ep. 14: Ice was a valuable commodity during the Joseon Dynasty.
In Ep. 14, the Grand Queen Dowager tells Queen Cheorin (Bong-hwan) that ice is a valuable commodity in Joseon.
From “Summer on ice: How ice became an essential part of summer life in Korea” (Korea Herald):
During the Joseon era (1392-1910), ice was a national asset under the control of the king, and accordingly, a luxury for noblemen.
From “Keeping food cool, the ancient way” (Korea JoongAng Daily) : “Since the year 505, or the 6th year of King Jijung’s reign, until the arrival of freon and electricity centuries later, Koreans used stone bunkers to store blocks of ice throughout the year. These seokbinggo, literally “stone ice storage,” were located around the country. Local governments sometimes delivered ice to palaces, but mostly used ice as a means to prevent special local products from spoiling on the way to a palace.”
From “Feeling the heat: The luxury of ice” in Joseon (Korea Times) by Robert Neff:
The Korean government maintained two large ice storage facilities at Seobinggo and Dongbingo, where huge slabs of river ice (nearly two meters long and about 12.5 centimeters thick) were covered with straw and preserved throughout the year. Court officials and others who possessed “bingpae” ― an ice ration card ― were regularly able to obtain a certain amount of this valuable commodity (based on their rank) for their own use.
(1) “The Grand Heist” is a 2012 South Korean historical comedy film about a gang of 11 thieves who try to steal ice blocks from the royal storage, Seobingo, during the last years of the Joseon era.
(2) In Ep. 9 of “A Jewel in the Palace,” crisis hits as Lady Han falls sick and Jang Geum, with Keum Young, is left to prepare the food for the king and his entourage in the royal hunt. When the Head Eunuch tells Jang Geum and Keum Young that the king wants cold noodles, he asks them if they brought ice with them. (When I first saw this scene back in 2015, I thought, “What’s the big deal with ice?”)
(3) In Ep. 2 of “The Tale of Nokdu,” Yul Mu prepares for Dong Joo a dessert for breakfast. The gisaengs around him become awestruck after the package that his bodyguard brought turns out to be a small block of ice.
What Yul Mu prepared for Dong Joo is similar to “patbingsu” (“bingsu).” Bingsu was introduced to Korea during the Japanese colonial period, but according to “Snowy delights and variations on bingsu” (Korea Herald) , shaved ice treats existed even during the Joseon Dynasty.
This is a bit off-topic, but notice two things after Yul Mu’s bodyguard finishes chopping the ice into smaller pieces:
(a) Before sheathing his sword into the scabbard, the bodyguard makes a downward slash with his sword and with a quick wrist flick; he did this to get rid of the water that may create rust in his sword. A swordsman also does this after slashing an enemy; blood may also cause the sword to become rusty.
(4) In Ep. 7 of Mr. Sunshine, Ae-shin and her servant Haman enjoy “patbingsu” (“bingsu”) in the French bakery.
F. Ep. 14: Donghak (religion, movement, peasant revolution)
In Ep. 14, the ministers threaten King Cheoljeong that if he does not order the execution of Dam Hyang (the little girl who saved Queen Cheorin from being poisoned), they will consider him as a supporter of the “Donghak” religion and its followers.
Donghak (lit. “Eastern Learning”) was an academic movement in Korean Neo-Confucianism founded in 1860 by Choe Je-u. The Donghak movement arose as a reaction to seohak (“Western learning”), and called for a return to the “Way of Heaven.” While Donghak originated as a reform movement and revival of Confucian teachings, it gradually evolved into a religion known today as “Cheondoism” in Korea under the third patriarch.
Related resources: “Gov’t to commemorate Donghak Peasant Revolution for 1st time” ; “Korea celebrates 125th anniversary of Donghak Peasant Revolution in 1894 (2020)”
G. Ep. 16: Difference between “Jo” and “Jong” in the posthumous (temple) names of the Joseon kings; the Joseon kings’ royal portraits and dramas such as “Painter of the Wind” and “Saimdang”
G-1. In Ep. 16, during the Royal Portrait painting session, Queen Cheorin wonders about the difference between between “Jo” and “Jong” in the posthumous (temple) names of the Joseon kings. The subtitles say that “jo” is added to the name of a king who’s honored for doing something great; on the other hand, “jong” is added to the name of a king who’s honored for his virtue. Well, this is just one of two reasons for the difference.
The website “dramasROK” in its in-depth article cites Korean historian Sul Min Suk who gives two reasons for the difference:
(1) Relationship of the king to his predecessor:
“If the successor was the king’s son – or next in line to the throne – then that king was given a posthumous title ending in JONG.
(2) “The ending JO was given to the founder of the dynasty – Taejo – for great achievements establishing a new dynasty. And then his descendants were supposed to be named JONG. So in a way, the title JO could be considered superior to JONG. And from now on this was the case. JO was seen as a more elite title to JONG. It started with King Seonjo…”
Relevant discussions: Why was King Sejong named "Sejong" instead of "Sejo"? and “Rulers of the Joseon Dynasty and KDrama Interpretations”
G-2. The Joseon kings’ royal portraits and dramas such as “Painter of the Wind” and “Saimdang”
Only seven portraits of five Joseon kings remain today as the others were destroyed during the Korean War (1950-1953). These surviving portraits are those of King Sejong, King Yeongjo, King Jeongjo, King Cheoljong, King Gojong, and King Sunjong. You can view these portraits at the Royal Portrait Museum in Jeonju, Korea.
For a more detailed depiction of how the Joseon kings’ royal portraits were drawn according to strict standards, you can watch “Painter of the Wind” (2008; Eps. 10-11) and “Saimdang” (2017; Ep. 22).
H. Ep. 16: Secret Royal Investigators during the Joseon Dynasty; secret royal investigators as depicted in “100 Days My Prince” and “Under The Queen's Umbrella”
H-1. In Ep. 16, King Cheoljong sends his trusted man Hong as a secret royal investigator to the most corrupt place in south Joseon. In his confrontation with a nobleman in a gisaeng house, Hong displays his “mapae.”
From “Amhaeng-eosa - secret royal inspector in Joseon Kingdom”:
“They were undercover officials directly appointed by the king and were sent to local provinces to punish corrupt officials and comfort the sufferings of people while traveling incognito. The amhaeng-eosa system was one of the most excellent inspection systems in the world, the likes of which is very unique and hard to find in other countries.”
The book “Corea, The Hermit Kingdom” (1888) by William Elliott Griffis states several interesting things about the secret royal inspectors. They were called “The Messengers on the Dark Path,” and to prevent them from abusing their powers, they were secretly monitored by a “yashi” or “Night Messenger.” Griffis states:
“An E-sa, or commissioner, who is to be sent to a distant province to ascertain the popular feeling, or to report the conduct of certain officers, is also called ‘The Messenger on the Dark Path.’ He receives sealed orders from the king, which he must not open till beyond the city walls. Then, without even going to his own house, he must set out for his destination, the government providing his expenses. He bears the seal of his commission, a silver plate having the figure of a horse engraved on it. In some cases he has the power of life and death in his hands.
H-2. Secret royal inspectors as depicted in "100 Days My Prince" and "Under the Queen’s Umbrella":
In Ep. 7 of “100 Days My Prince,” a royal secret inspector (“Amhaengeosa”) saves Yul and Hong-shim from the corrupt magistrate and Master Park. Hong-shim previously recognized that the man sleeping in her father’s room was a royal secret inspector because he was holding a “yuchuk” (a brazen ruler that inspectors used for several purposes, including making sure that the measurement system for taxation was correctly followed).
In Eps. 8-10 of “Under The Queen's Umbrella, as part of the contest, the Grand Princes and the princes disguise themselves as “secret royal inspectors” (“amhaeng-eosa”) in pursuit of the assignments given by King Lee Ho. In some scenes, you can see the inspectors’ seal (badge) and tool: the “mapae” and the “yuchuk.”
I. Miscellaneous notes: Ep. 11: the fight with fans as weapons; “jangot” or head covering for noblewomen during the Joseon Dynasty ; the beautiful bridge across the pond in Ep. 1 and other episodes
I-1. Ep. 11: During the festival, King Cheoljoeong and Kim Byeong-in fight using fans as requested by the Grand Queen Dowager. While they’re using ordinary fans, there’s actually a martial art system using a fan as a weapon.
From Wikipedia: Tessenjutsu (Japanese; lit. “iron fan technique”) is the martial art of the Japanese war fan (tessen). It is based on the use of the solid iron fan or the folding iron fan, which usually had eight or ten wood or iron ribs. The use of the war fan in combat is mentioned in early Japanese legends.
In Ep. 11 of “Saimdang,”Lee Gyeom fights off Min Chi-hyung’s men using his fan.
Related resources: War Fan Tessen Techniques and Why Samurai Carried and Fought with Fans Made of Metal
I-2. “Jangot” (alternative spelling ”changot”): similar to the outer jacket of a hanbok but with a collar and a ribbon for tying both sides; according to the principles of the Joseon Dynasty’s Confucianism, women were ordered not to show their face to men, so they would cover their faces in many ways while going out. (Wikipedia)
From “Veiling of Korean Women: The Neo-Confucian Influence in Comparison to the Veiling of Muslim Women” by Hye Ok Park (Claremont Graduate University, Department of History) :
Different types of veils
I-3. The beautiful bridge and pond shown below are used as the location for several scenes in “Mr. Queen”, starting with Ep. 1. This bridge is located in the Gungnamji Pond (Historic Site No. 135) in Seodong Park; it is Korea’s first artificial pond and was created by King Mu from the Baekje Dynasty. The bridge and pond have been used in other dramas such as “The Flower in Prison,” “The Joseon Gunman,” and “The Tale of Nokdu.”
(1) In digging up the historical and cultural backgrounders of the K-dramas that I watch, I rely on English language resources on the Internet. I don’t speak or read Korean, and so I can’t search through Naver. Those of you who read Korean or are more knowledgeable about Korean culture and history should correct whatever errors or omissions there may be in this discussion.
(2) Other discussions that I have posted on the historical and cultural backgrounders of K-historical dramas:
“Hotel Del Luna” (some cultural backgrounders for international viewers)
(3) This discussion is rather long and may be a bit boring for those of you who don't like history. If you got tired reading this discussion, you can energize yourself by listening to Band-Maid’s performances during their 2022 USA tour. Band-Maid is an all-female Japanese band that mixes genres such as rock (hard, progressive, punk), metal, pop, jazz, and blues. Listen for example to “Freedom" (anthem; watch out for the drum solo); “Daydreaming" (power ballad; watch out for the lead guitar solo); “Wonderland” (rock-jazz-blues).
2023.03.21 12:25 WilliamsLakeNewsBot Expect tradition, modern twists at Indoor Spring Classic Rodeo in Williams Lake - Barriere Star Journal
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2023.03.21 12:01 Devi8tor The First Debt I Ever Had
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