2010.02.24 18:10 University of Florida
2016.09.09 19:23 isthishowilogin UNF Spinnaker: Front page access to your news
2014.08.29 19:30 iammagicmike The City of Saint Clair Shores, MI
2023.03.23 08:59 Ace-Whatever March 23rd Update
This week: Remember the days when the only thing you had to distinguish was the TV and Endless Waltz versions of the Gundams from Wing? Fun times.submitted by Ace-Whatever to GBO2 [link] [comments]
BB is just writing u/doomguy11's Youtube thumbnail flavor text for him now
Do a 10 roll to dress as the ghosts of pilots past.
Roll now for another shot at getting Tweety.
You stare at the abyss. The abyss shrugs back.
New RT Items
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2023.03.23 08:25 shreyaslakhare11 Middle East and Africa DNA Sequencing Market Growth
Middle East and Africa DNA sequencing market is growing at a CAGR of 15.78% over the forecasting duration between 2021 and 2028. Get Free Sample Reportsubmitted by shreyaslakhare11 to lifesciences [link] [comments]
Middle East and Africa DNA Sequencing Market
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Middle East and Africa botulinum toxin market is anticipated to progress with a CAGR of 5.42% over the forecasting years from 2021 to 2028. Get Free Sample Reportsubmitted by shreyaslakhare11 to lifesciences [link] [comments]
Middle East and Africa Botulinum Toxin Market
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2023.03.23 07:29 batrahospital Cancer hospital in south delhi
Batra Hospital is a leading cancer hospital in South Delhi. It is backed by a team of experienced and dedicated medical professionals committed to providing comprehensive and quality care for cancer patients. The hospital offers comprehensive services, including diagnostic and preventive care, medical and surgical treatments, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and alternative treatments. Batra Hospital's dedicated Urology Department provides comprehensive care for all kinds of urological diseases. The department is headed by a team of highly qualified and experienced urologists who are knowledgeable and skilled in treating various complex urological conditions. They are also well-versed in the latest medical and surgical techniques to ensure the best commitment to providing comprehensive and quality care for possible outcomes for the patient. The hospital has a dedicated Critical Care Unit that provides comprehensive and comprehensive care for critically ill patients. The unit is equipped with the latest medical equipment and staffed by highly experienced and qualified medical professionals who are experienced in managing critically ill patients. Batra Hospital is committed to providing quality care and treatment to all its patients. It is one of the leading cancer hospitals in South Delhi and provides a comprehensive range of services to its patients. It is ideal for those seeking quality cancer treatment in South Delhi.submitted by batrahospital to u/batrahospital [link] [comments]
2023.03.23 07:25 baby_0ne Theory: UAP is the new Cold War
2023.03.23 07:08 ruKawin Thursday, 23rd March 2023
This edition of The Daily Spin was published On-Chain via Mirror.xyz and can be collected at: https://mirror.xyz/rukawin.eth/w_SagXW3TkL1MQxWkKuyOabOibd5WGFnxYjSnGuVWNcsubmitted by ruKawin to CoinwebDailySpin [link] [comments]
The Daily Spin. Ramadan Thursday Edition. LFG! The FED raises interest rates for the 9th consecutive time, yesterday by 25 basis points, and stands by the narrative that “isolated bank failures” could lead to contagion and that they acted swiftly and decisively – but that the economy is strong, the banking system is strong, unemployment is low – and oh let’s not mention the $300B added to the balance sheet, the BTFP and the stealthy delay of the shit hitting the fan when bailout treasury swaps are due one year later… meanwhile, the report from Biden attacks crypto for speculation and for ESG, paving the way for a US CBDC to reveal itself as the solution – which was shrewdly opposed by Republican leaders in both Texas (Sen. Ted Cruz) and Florida (Gov. De Santis).
Then, as if with hive mind mentality, the SEC unleashes a barrage of regulation by enforcement attacks aimed at Coinbase who received a Wells Notice, Justin Sun, SushiSwap, and a bunch of other suits at influencers in connection with promoting FTX. You know what, I’ve created an entire new section devoted to this grift with the US Government entitled, “US Coordinated Regulation Failures.” It’s really starting to ratchet up as Bitcoin holders are 72% in profit, dominance approaches 48% and the eye of the storm seems to have just passed over.
As previous cycles have shown in unison with current technical analysis, when BTC hits 48% dominance the ETH/BTC trendline breaks out and then the market takes their profits and fires it into what is affectionately known as “Altcoin Season.” To summarize, the BTC 4-year cycle has come to fruition once again, leading up to the halving, and it is with more confidence that the bottom has passed – but that we’re in a new, bull run with some uniquely differentiating qualities. This time, people are in the green and moving to self-custody. The macroeconomic environment is in the gutter as the global lockdown comes to bear, the banking system is collapsing around us as we speak, and there’s been more division in politics than ever before. There is even the real possibility that the US Dollar loses its status as the world’s reserve currency – Xi, Putin and the leaders of the BRICS nations might have something to say about that. For many who have been in crypto for long enough, who have foreseen these problems come to a head and coined what is known as “The Great Flippening.” It has begun.
Now let’s get to brass tax about the other headlines of the day… Coinbase executives have been running for the door for over a month, selling shares and shouting “the British are here!” at the top of their lungs. Ethereum puts its Shanghai-Capella hard fork upgrade to April 12th. Arbitrum’s token $ARB launches today at Ethereum block 16890400, one of the most anticipated L2 events of the year. Ontology incubates a new layer 2 solution, “The Goshen Network.” A Circle executive (USDC) gets their Twitter account hacked. Crypto firms flock to Swiss Banks (read: UBS) after Silvergate and Signature collapses. The SEC names 6 altcoins they believe to be securities traded on Coinbase’s exchange: AMP, LCX, POWR, RLY, XYO, and DDX. XRPL is rallying in anticipation of a favorable SEC vs. Ripple outcome.
Elsewhere, Hong Kong is to release virtual asset licensing details in June. The South Korean DAXA releases guidelines for listing and relisting crypto assets. France is looking to ban crypto promotion, as their petrochemical workforce sets fire to the infrastructure and mobilizes against Macron. And concerns surface about the Venezuelan Central Bank as they no-show their economic data report, amid allegations of corruption in high political offices around crypto.
In TL today, we talk about Bank fuck-ups, Elon Musk chimes in about the current antiquated financial system, and Arthur Hayes writes a beautiful prose on the current day crises in an article entitled, “Kaiseki”… here is our round-up of curated news and opinions (surely biased) from the world of Blockchain, keeping you informed into the market news with the most trending, in-the-know, and controversial topics. In the name of transparent, dissemination of information to keep you curious, inspired, and clinically sane…
Ongoings at Coinweb
Coinweb’s Layer 2 marks 4 million transactions milestone https://twitter.com/CoinwebOfficial/status/1638125472814092291?s=20
Coinweb Partners With Ceffu for Institutional Crypto Custody https://www.ceffu.com/blog/coinweb-partners-with-ceffu-for-institutional-crypto-custody?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=organic_social&utm_campaign=cweb0321
Coinweb’s Fireside Chat Series, digitALL: Innovation and Technology for Gender Equality https://twitter.com/CoinwebOfficial/status/1636676933361745920?s=20
“A Thread on Refereed Delegation of Computation” by Kawin on Twitter https://twitter.com/CoinwebOfficial/status/1635952081302589441?s=20
Coinweb to bring cross-chain tokenisation to Layer 2 https://cryptoslate.com/coinweb-to-bring-cross-chain-tokenisation-to-layer-2/
“A Thread on L2 Scalability, Network Efficiency and Throughput/TPS” by Anton on Twitter https://twitter.com/CoinwebOfficial/status/1633424957693915137
The Coinweb Monthly Spin - Coinweb Project's Monthly Round-Up and Curated News & Events From The Bleeding Edge of All Things Web3 https://coinweb.beehiiv.com/p/coinweb-monthly-spin-fifth-edition
A Leading Layer 2 Platform Looking To Tackle Crypto's Interoperability Issue https://www.benzinga.com/markets/cryptocurrency/23/02/31067514/a-leading-layer-2-platform-looking-to-tackle-cryptos-interoperability-issue
“The Reality of Large-scale Enterprises Adopting Blockchain Technology” an article by Toby Gilbert for CityAM Magazine https://www.cityam.com/the-reality-of-large-scale-enterprises-adopting-blockchain-technology/
Coinweb Labs is proud to unveil LinkMint ⛓️🍃, our groundbreaking Cross-Chain Tokenisation Platform and DeconX, our integrated native DEX! Live Walkthrough Demonstration for the Community by Toby, Knut, and Alexander. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CSKA3cAB15U
“A Thread on Guaranteed Liveness and the Coinweb Routing System” by Anton on Twitter https://twitter.com/CoinwebOfficial/status/1630052477579169793?s=20
“A Thread on Rollups, Monolithic, and Modular Blockchains” by Kawin on Twitter https://twitter.com/rukawin/status/1616342851507613696?s=46&t=BjBOK3soH3kOMbsWEa_jlg
Coinweb to Deliver Cross-Chain Smart Contract Architecture and Blockchain Loyalty Programme to BMW https://cryptoslate.com/bmw-to-bring-blockchain-loyalty-program-through-coinweb-and-bnb-chain/
KuCoin Labs launches incubation program to accelerate builders (Coinweb, DoraHacks, Ava Labs) https://cointelegraph.com/press-releases/kucoin-labs-launches-incubation-program-to-accelerate-builders
Toby’s full presentation at Token2049-London https://youtu.be/pdtKx3vAs9c
On the Radar
Arbitrum Airdrop, Mar 23 Polygon zkEVM Launch, Mar 27 (On-chain) WOW Summit, Mar 29-30 (Hong Kong) ASEAN Web3 Summit, Mar 30-31 (Singapore)
Ethereum Shanghai-Capella Upgrade, Apr 12 (On-chain) Hong Kong Web3 Festival, Apr 12-15 (Wan Chai, Hong Kong) Consensus 2023, Apr 26-28 (Austin, Texas)
Web3 Weekend, May 8-13 (Jakarta)
AIBC Asia, Jul 19-22 (Manila)
TOKEN2049, Sep 13-14 (Singapore)
Blockchain Events curated by CryptoNomad https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1KtyFTb_W282bQ1xoVA5rlTwTDz3QfhswWIVpXhpbQIc/edit
On the Block(chain)
US raises interest rates for the ninth consecutive time despite banking turmoil https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-65041649
Bitcoin, DXY suffer the most following FOMC meeting https://cryptoslate.com/insights/bitcoin-dxy-suffer-the-most-following-fomc-meeting/
Bitcoin is now above the realized price of every year other than 2021 https://cryptoslate.com/insights/bitcoin-is-now-above-the-realized-price-of-every-year-other-than-2021/
Ethereum's next big upgrade Shapella expected to hit mainnet on Apr 12, 2023 https://www.theblock.co/post/220582/ethereums-next-big-upgrade-shapella-expected-to-hit-mainnet-on-april-12?utm_source=telegram1&utm_medium=social
YouTube Influencers Slapped With $1 Billion Lawsuit for Promoting FTX https://decrypt.co/123810/youtube-influencers-bitboy-1-billion-lawsuit-ftx
CoinMarketCap announces Catalyst, a European Web3 Conference https://cryptoslate.com/press-releases/coinmarketcap-announces-catalyst-a-european-web3-conference/
Crystal Blockchain Study Reveals $16.7 Billion in Crypto Assets Stolen Since 2011 https://news.bitcoin.com/crystal-blockchain-study-reveals-16-7-billion-in-crypto-assets-stolen-since-2011/?utm_source=OneSignalPush&utm_medium=notification&utm_campaign=PushNotifications
Coinbase CEO dumped over 59k COIN shares over past few weeks https://crypto.news/coinbase-ceo-dumped-over-59k-coin-shares-over-past-few-weeks/
Coinbase insiders sold $7.4M stocks in the last 30 days https://cryptoslate.com/coinbase-insiders-sold-7-4m-stocks-in-the-last-30-days/
Traders Bet Arbitrum Will Have the Second-Biggest Layer 2 Token https://thedefiant.io/traders-bet-arbitrum-will-have-the-second-biggest-layer-2-token
Ontology Foundation Incubates New Layer 2 Solution: Goshen Network https://medium.com/ontologynetwork/ontology-foundation-incubates-new-layer-2-solution-goshen-network-dc4b03258cdc
USDC issuer Circle issues warning about hacked executive account https://cryptoslate.com/usdc-issuer-circle-issues-warning-about-hacked-executive-account/
Aave Community Rallies Behind Proposed Metis Deployment https://thedefiant.io/aave-v3-metis-proposal
Crypto firms turn to Swiss banks following Signature, Silvergate collapse https://crypto.news/crypto-firms-turn-to-swiss-banks-following-signature-silvergate-collapse/
US. Coordinated Regulation Failures
Coinbase receives Wells Notice from US SEC https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/1679788/000167978823000051/coin-20230322.htm
6 Ethereum Altcoins Targeted By SEC Ahead of Coinbase Wells Notice https://dailyhodl.com/2023/03/22/6-ethereum-altcoins-targeted-by-sec-ahead-of-coinbase-wells-notice/
SEC Sues Tron Founder Justin Sun for Market Manipulation and Offering Unregistered Securities https://news.bitcoin.com/sec-sues-tron-founder-justin-sun-for-market-manipulation-and-offering-unregistered-securities/?utm_source=OneSignalPush&utm_medium=notification&utm_campaign=PushNotifications
Texas Lawmaker Launches Resolution to Protect Bitcoin Investors, Support BTC Economy https://news.bitcoin.com/texas-lawmaker-launches-resolution-to-protect-bitcoin-investors-support-btc-economy/?utm_source=OneSignalPush&utm_medium=notification&utm_campaign=PushNotifications
US Senator Introduces Bill to Ban Direct-to-Consumer Central Bank Digital Currency https://news.bitcoin.com/us-senator-introduces-bill-to-ban-direct-to-consumer-central-bank-digital-currency/?utm_source=OneSignalPush&utm_medium=notification&utm_campaign=PushNotifications
Former Coinbase CTO urges ‘get to Bitcoin’ before CBDC digital lockdown https://cryptoslate.com/former-coinbase-cto-urges-get-to-bitcoin-before-cbdc-digital-lockdown/
Ripple’s XRPL account near 5M despite legal issues with SEC https://cryptoslate.com/ripples-xrpl-account-near-5m-despite-legal-issues-with-sec/
Putin, Xi Vow to Use Yuan as Russia and China Move to Settlements in National Currencies https://news.bitcoin.com/putin-xi-vow-to-use-yuan-as-russia-and-china-move-to-settlements-in-national-currencies/?utm_source=OneSignalPush&utm_medium=notification&utm_campaign=PushNotifications
Hong Kong To Release Licensing Details For Virtual Asset Businesses In June https://thedefiant.io/hk-vasp-licensing-june
Korean DAXA releases guidelines for listing and relisting crypto assets https://crypto.news/korean-daxa-releases-guidelines-for-listing-and-relisting-crypto-assets/
France looks to ban influencers from promoting crypto products, projects https://cryptoslate.com/france-looks-to-ban-influencers-from-promoting-crypto-products-projects/
Central Bank of Venezuela Lags in Delivering Economic Data, Experts Fear Upcoming Hyperinflation https://news.bitcoin.com/central-bank-of-venezuela-lags-in-delivering-economic-data-experts-fear-upcoming-hyperinflation/?utm_source=OneSignalPush&utm_medium=notification&utm_campaign=PushNotifications
When Will Crypto Learn From the Mistakes of Banks? https://www.coindesk.com/consensus-magazine/2023/03/15/when-will-crypto-learn-from-the-mistakes-of-banks/?utm=red
Cryptocurrency: World’s 2nd Wealthiest Person Says Our Fiat Money System Is an Antiquated Embarrassment https://levelup.gitconnected.com/worlds-2nd-wealthiest-person-says-our-fiat-money-system-is-an-antiquated-embarrassment-40b0404a3d40
A New Chapter of Capitalism Emerges From the Banking Crisis https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2023-03-22/global-banking-crisis-opens-a-new-chapter-of-capitalism
Kaiseki by Arthur Hayes https://entrepreneurshandbook.co/kaiseki-b15230bdd09e
2023.03.23 06:56 Korommia 6G Concept Shows Great Potential: WiMi Seizes The Opportunity
Since the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology said at the beginning of this month that it will accelerate 6G research and development, recently 6G good news. According to incomplete statistics, since 2023, there are more than 236G concept stocks in A shares that have risen by more than 20%, and 9 stocks that have risen by more than 40%.submitted by Korommia to WIMI [link] [comments]
The 6G application scenarios
As the next-generation communication technology of 5G, 6G performance is comprehensively improved over 5G, and most of the indicators will be improved by 10-100 times. It is the core technology for the innovative development of the digital economy, and it is crucial to a new round of technological innovation and industrial transformation. Looking around the world, 2023 is an important node for 6G, and this year, the vision of 6G will be established around the world.
The US has already crossed 5G to 6G; South Korea also plans to launch a sixth-generation (6G) network service in 2028 to ensure early dominance in future wireless frequencies. South Korea's Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology recently said a feasibility study on the 625.3 billion won core 6G technology project for research and development is underway. It is clear that the 6G dominance is already unfolding around the world.
6G research and development accelerated
With the national policy support for the construction and development of 6G, many listed companies have also stepped up the layout of the 6G industry. It is understood that "Holographic AR First Unit" WIMI Hologram Cloud (NASDAQ: WIMI), as a leading enterprise in 5G + AR / AI technology, integrates 5G, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and other new generation of information technology for application, and pays close attention to the industrial policy, development trend, and technology route of 6G communication technology. WIMI combines its own field and main business for a forward-looking technical layout, actively exploring the corresponding business opportunities and grasping the relevant market opportunities.
Data show that the driving force of 6G development makes smart cities gradually develop towards the direction of "life-like institutions". WIMI proposed the concept of "superintelligence" formed by the mutual integration of human brain intelligence and machine intelligence and integrated 6G with artificial intelligence technology, and began to develop the WIMI holographic super intelligent network system. Through the 6G high-speed dedicated information channel, artificial intelligence technology is used to perceive more multidimensional and more comprehensive data and improve the speed of data transmission and processing, and the city management and service level are comprehensively improved through the remote data interaction capability.
It is reported that WIMI's holographic super-intelligent network system can use the collection of multi-source multidimensional data such as urban traffic and public security to realize intelligent real-time monitoring and analysis based on comprehensive urban data, provide holographic digital management for the natural environment and urban environment, allocate urban resources, and give early warning of abnormal conditions. It can also obtain massive data by collecting vehicle peripheral information and other vehicle information, and provide autonomous driving services after intelligent body analysis and decision-making.
In addition, 6G is the core technology for the innovative development of the digital economy, which is crucial to a new round of technological innovation and industrial transformation.
With the further clarification of the 6G technology path, the industry is expected to usher in catalysis, WIMI in the support of technical strength, or in the future industrial development of action plan; accelerate the layout of a humanoid robot, metaverse, digital people and other frontier areas, comprehensively promote the research and development of 6G technology, constantly enrich and expand new application scenarios, and expand the construction layout in the field of emerging industries.
Tianfeng Securities said that China has made important progress in 6G super-scale MIMO, terahertz communication, synaesthesia, endogenous AI communication, deterministic network, and satellite-earth integrated network. Starting from February 1, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology will optimize and adjust the frequency of the microwave communication system to further meet the requirements of high-capacity information transmission (microwave return) scenarios such as 5G base stations, and reserve spectrum resources for China's 5G, industrial Internet, and future 6G.
As the cornerstone of future communication, 6G's network architecture has the ability to support the intelligent interconnection and fusion of multiple heterogeneous networks to dynamically meet complex and diverse scenarios and business needs. Compared with the technical architecture of 5G, the transition from ground access to the ubiquitous access of air, world, and sea is one of the important changes of 6G compared to 5G.2023 is a critical year for 6G, which is also crucial for China to maintain its dominant position in the communications sector. The author believes that competition is fierce in the world, and to have a place in the 6G field, it is inevitable to plan and deploy in advance.
2023.03.23 06:52 ankita-raut Electronic Shelf Label Market Analysis, Growth, Trends, Forecast 2027
2023.03.23 06:51 panzacolas south florida upskirt dancing
|submitted by panzacolas to HCUIG [link] [comments]|
2023.03.23 06:50 menorahman100 Templars, Cathars and Mary Magdalene
There is a widespread belief that the Knights Templar and the Cathars had a similar world-view. What is undeniable is that they shared the fate of being denounced as heretics, and violently attacked by secular and ecclesiastical ecclesiastical authorities of France. They were subjected to arrest, interrogation and torture by the Inquisition and in the cases of a number, executed by burning at the stake.submitted by menorahman100 to SaturnStormCube [link] [comments]
Some have claimed that, because of some shared Gnostic heritage, the Order of the Temple offered shelter to fugitive Cathars during the Papal persecution of the sect, which commenced a century before the Templars themselves faced destruction. The Templars in the meantime are supposed to have embraced or reaffirmed many Cathar doctrines. The two 'heretical' groups are supposed to have been united additionally by reverence for a particular female saint, Mary Magdalene, and by having some special insight concerning her relationship with Jesus.
One of the functions of religion is to answer fundamental existential questions. Primarily, it must account for the darkness, death and pain in the world, how these things can afflict humanity if there exists a loving God. God, being good, cannot be responsible for the presence of evil, so there has to be another force, an enemy of mankind, a Devil. But if God is the creator of all things and Almighty, how can he permit this Devil to exist? The branch of early Christianity that became Roman Catholicism reasoned that God must have been permitting the Devil's existence in order to test people's faith; and to punish the souls of the wicked in a ghastly afterlife in Hell. An alternative faction explained things differently. They drew on an age-old Zoroastrian idea of two cosmic forces- light and darkness- locked in an endless struggle. Influenced by Orphism and Manichaeanism, the belief developed that the material world was the dominion of the evil principal- the false god or demiurgue. There was no hell other than this created world. This reality was a prison for the soul. The soul was part of an angel, created by the good God, but tempted by the Devil into a human body. The soul, itself, belonged to the domain of light and yearned to return there. In that purely spiritual paradise was to be found the original and true God, who transcends creation.
The former (Catholic) view gained ascendancy and was recognised as orthodoxy by the ruling classes. However, due to the influence of St Augustine of Hippo, previously an associate of a Manichaean sect, a tendency to link the flesh and worldliness with the Devil crept into the Catholic mainstream. This was later evident in the Rule drawn up for a Catholic Order of warrior monks. (This was a radical new organisation, made possible in part by another Augustinian doctrine, about it being permissible for Christians to fight and kill in defence of the Faith). The Rule sought to impose a sombre and austere way of life on these men- the Knights Templar.
You who renounce your own wills… serving the Sovereign King (God) with horses and arms, for the salvation of your souls… strive everywhere to hear matins… God is with you if you promise to despise the Deceitful world in perpetual love of God and scorn the temptations of the body.(The Primitive Rule of the Templars, translated by J Upton Ward (Clause 9, p. 21)
The Templars were founded to defend pilgrims and the frontiers of the territory taken by the First Crusade, and were based on Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Their primary backer, the Cistercian Abbot Bernard of Clairvaux, secured their recognition as an arm of the Church at the Council of Troyes in 1128/9. He also saw that these warriors would observe monastic regulations, living celibately and without personal property. The Templars grew quickly, as idealistic knights joined and as pious aristocrats donated estates to them. They matured as a fighting force during the Second Crusade, of 1147-9.
The 1140s also saw the establishment of a convent of Benedictine nuns at Bethany, near Jerusalem. It was patronised by Queen Melisende, the half-Armenian daughter of Baldwin II. Her younger sister Yoveta eventually became abbess of the convent. Bethany was best known for the tomb from which Christ had raised Lazarus, the brother of Mary and Martha back to life. A nearby church marked the spot where Mary of Bethany had anointed Christ. The Catholic Church identified Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalene, while the Greek Orthodox Church identified two different women. The disagreement caused some argument. The Latin Bishop of Laodicea, Gerard of Nazareth, wrote a polemic supporting the Western tradition. This supported a cult of Mary Magdalene that flourished in Bethany. However there is some suggestion that at least one Templar, identified by Gerard as Sala, disagreed with the conflation. Whatever the case, devotion to Mary Magdalene, and Easter processions between Bethany and the Holy Sepulchre flourished in the Crusader Kingdom until that state's near obliteration by the forces of Saladin.
Poor and divided leadership propelled the Christian side to defeat at the battle of Hattin in 1187. Afterwards the victorious Sultan, made the Templar and Hospitaller prisoners choose between conversion to Islam or death. They all refused to convert and were beheaded en-masse by the Sufis accompanying the Islamic army. After this, Saladin swept through the Crusader state and soon Jerusalem was in his hands. (The convent at Bethany was also destroyed at this time, though the nuns appears to have reconvened at Acre, the new capital of the Latin East, and resisted moves from the Knights Hopsitaller to take over their remaining properties. A Cistercian convet dedicated to Mary Magdalene also existed at Acre).
Another religious movement, known to history as the Cathar heresy, was taking root in Southern France at this time. The Cathars were similar to the Templars in their scorn of worldly things and their obsession with chastity. They differed from them in that they did not reflect the misogyny of the Catholic establishment, and allowed women, too, to be ordained as spiritual leaders, or Perfecti. They seem to have preached that no violence was just, that social rank was irrelevant, and that worldliness was sinful. They believed in reincarnation so practiced vegetarianism. Their one sacrament was the consolamentum, which cut off elite believers from the material world. Perfecti lived austerely, hoping that by denying the world in this life they would escape the cycle of reincarnation and reach paradise when they died. They lived on the charity of Credentes, or Cathar believers. The Cathars had affiliates in the Balkans and the Byzantine Empire, known as Bogomils. In 1167 Bogomil delegates supposedly attended a Cathar Council in the Languedoc town of St Felix de Carman, near Toulouse. Presided over by their high priest Niquinta, the council established the dualist doctrines of the Cathar counter-church, and that these doctrines were irreconcilable with Catholicism.
Cathar beliefs were recorded by Inquisitors, like the later Bernardo Gui, who would endeavour to eradicate these same beliefs. Cathars denied the physical resurrection of Christ, and some of them considered that he had been of pure spirit- how else could he escape the taint of being part of the Devil's imperfect world? They rejected the Old Testament, but had their own sacred writings, perhaps even having some familiarity with the Gnostic Gospels, (which Catholicism had endeavoured to suppress and which were formerly presumed lost). Naturally the Cathars also rejected the authority of the Pope and his Bishops. They saw no value in confessing to a priest who may be himself a sinner, and who had power 'neither to loose nor bind'. The water Catholic priests used in baptism could not sanctify, argued the Cathars, because it was of corrupt matter (part of the world that the Devil had made). The host of the Eucharist could not contain the blood and body of Christ, as 'it passes through the body and comes to a vile end which, they say, could not happen if God were in it'. Moreover it was, for Cathars, anathema to worship the cross, as 'no-one would adore the gallows on which a father, relative or friend were hung.' As such subversive ideas spread, they become a threat to ecclesiastical authority in the region. When worldly Papal Legates were dispatched as preachers, to win back the souls of Languedoc for Catholicism, they had the opposite of the desired effect.
Pope Innocent III ordered Count Raymond VI of Toulouse to persecute the Cathars in his district. 'The ingrained corruption of abominable heresy does not cease to breed monstrous offspring… Let us… enforce correction of this vile breed of people… Ulcers which do not respond to treatment must be cut with the knife.' Peter de Castelnau, the Papal Legate, echoed these demands. Raymond did not cooperate, though, and found himself excommunicated. In 1208 Innocent III called a crusade, to quash Catharism, prompted by Castelnau's murder. He promised spiritual indulgences to knights, mostly from Northern France, who came south to attack the heretics and those who harboured them. For many knights this was a much easier proposition than going all the way to Palestine. Back in 1099, Jerusalem had been won for Christendom by an army under Raymond IV de St Gilles, count of Toulouse. Now Northern Crusaders descended to attack the land of his namesake. This campaign became known as the Albigensian Crusade, after the town of Albi, one of the hotbeds of Catharism. The Templars and Hospitallers, also well established in the Languedoc, were torn in their allegiances, now, between the Pope and their historical patrons. They opted to try to preserve their neutrality.
It must have been difficult, as this turned out to be a total war. To forestall his own fate, Raymond VI initially made a show of penitence, actually joining the Crusade and directing it against his former ally, Raymond-Roger Trencavel, viscount of Beziers and Carcassonne. When the 'Crusaders' stormed the city of Beziers, the new Papal Legate, the Abbot Arnold Amaury of Citeaux, reputedly told his troops 'kill them all, God will know his own!' A rash sortie by the defenders left a gate of the city undefended, and the rabble of the northern army was able to surge through and hold it open. As the streets filled with blood, many of the people fled to a church in the upper town, which was dedicated to Mary Magdalene. The crusaders trapped them there and slaughtered them. (The chronicles say 7,000 people died, though the church could only have contained about 1,000.) In one morning the town was wiped out. Altogether some 20,000 people, 'regardless of age and sex' as the Abbot proudly informed the Pope, were killed. This terrible massacre was the first of the 'crusade', and occurred on July 22, Saint Mary Magdalene's day, 1209. The crusaders went on to attack Carcassonne, imprisoning its lord the Viscount Raymond-Roger Trencavel when he came out to nnegotiate after a brave resistance against the northern might. The city soon fell into the crusaders' hands, and deprived of their possessions the people were driven out. The next major target was Miverne, which fell to the Crusaders exactly a year after Beziers. Arnold Amaury marked Mary Magdalene's day with the first mass burning of living Cathars.
There was a popular cult of Saint Mary Magdalene in southern France. Mary Magdalene had been one of Christ's followers, (out of whom he had cast seven devils). According to the Canonical Gospels, she was present at the Crucifixion, and the tomb of Christ, and took the news the missing body to the disciples. John's Gospel additionally has her as the first to encounter the risen Christ, after she lingered in the garden weeping. Because of her role as messenger Mary Magdalene was afforded the title of apostola apostolorum. The early Gnostics has also revered the saint, and their writings portrayed her as a member of Christ's inner circle. They believed Christ's spirit appeared to her, after the Crucifixion, to reveal to her deeper spiritual truths. Moreover, many Gnostic Christians found in her a refreshing foil to the patriarchal and hierarchical religion constructed by Peter, Paul and later Church Fathers like Saint Jerome. Gnostics believed that Mary comprehended Christ's teaching better than any other, being one of the closest people to him. According to one of the Gnostic apocrypha, the Gospel of Philip, she was called the companion of the Saviour.
…But Christ loved her more than all the other disciples and used to kiss her often on the mouth. The rest of the disciples were offended by it and expressed disapproval. They said to him 'Why do you love her more than all of us?' The saviour answered and told them 'Why do I not love you like her?'
The Catholic Church, however, downplayed her preaching role. It would not do to elevate a female too highly (except for the Virgin mother of Christ). Magdalene was portrayed as a penitent whore. (After the crucifixion, according to the medieval myth, she came and to southern France, living out her days as a hermit. Her relics were discovered in Provence by a monk and removed to Vezelay Abbey in Burgundy.) Mary's redemption by divine grace made her a symbol of God's forgiveness of sinners. In so far as this she may have appealed to the Templars, many of whom, in their own way, had turned their backs on sinful lives to follow Christ. There is no evidence for any especial reverence for her within the Order, though. Their Latin Rule doesn't mention her except in a list of saints feast days to be observed (clause 75), and is as about as unfriendly towards females as any other tract that can be found:
The company of women is a dangerous thing, for by it the old Devil has led many from the straight path to paradise. Henceforth let not ladies be admitted as sisters to the House of the Temple… that the flower of chastity is always maintained among you.(Rule of the Templars, trans. J. Upton-Ward, clause 70, p. 36).
The author of the Rule saw women as dangerous temptresses and expressly associated them with the Devil. There may have been isolated examples of women 'giving themselves' to the Order to live according to its constitution, there may even have been nunneries, but this founding principal was hardly any encouragement for this. Women saints venerated by the Order included virgin martyrs like Catherine of Alexandria. Nonetheless for them female saints occupied a heavenly realm and were removed from real women, who were best avoided, as clause 71 of the rule made clear. Unlike Christ who had suffered a sinful woman to anoint him, the Templars were to have no contact, nor even to look at women, and not to kiss even their closest female relatives.
The Cathars were equally wary of the temptations of the flesh, but were without the institutional misogyny of the Catholic mainstream. Cathars allowed females to receive the consolamentum and to act as preaching Perfecti. This was part of their heresy in the eyes of the Catholics. They also seem to have had their own ideas concering Mary Magdalene. Many, including gypsies and poor people around the Languedoc, revered this saint, and believed the legend (fostered by Vezelay from the 1030s onwards) that she came there. She fled Palestine, and landed at Marseilles with Martha and Lazarus, and preached to the pagan inhabitants. Like the Gnostics before them, the Cathars elevated her above the other apostles. They may even have regarded her as the widow of Jesus. The anti-Cathar propagandists Ermegaud de Beziers and Durand de la Huesca (founder of the Order of Poor Catholics, which preached against the Perfecti while mirroring their asceticism) wrote that the Cathars secretly taught that Mary Magdalene was the wife or concubine of Christ; and also that she was the woman 'taken in adultery' who Christ had saved from the Jews who wanted to stone her. Reynaldus in his 'annales' stated that this was so of Cathar beliefs, but that they thought that Mary Magdalene had been the concubine of the man Jesus, who was a bad man. The real, good Christ had only existed as pure spirit in the mind of St Paul!
From this allegation has arisen something of a conspiracy theory: It has it that knowledge of Christ's alleged relationship with Mary (and perhaps proof thereof) passed from the Cathars to the Knights Templar. It was to remove the threat of this great secret, potentially damaging as it supposedly was to the Church, that the Catholic establishment suppressed the Templars, a century after the Albigensian Crusade. (The theory probably has a particular appeal to those with a latent penchant for goddess worship). Many authors have additionally speculated that Mary Magdalene was herself of royal blood, or a priestess of some Isis/Ishtar cult, and that the Cathars and Templars regarded her almost as the embodiment of the feminine aspect of the divine and the personification of holy wisdom (Sophia to the Gnostics). Part of the theory also has Mary and Jesus founding a dynasty, which fused with the Merovingian line, and which continued in secret into the middle ages and beyond. This theory is hard to reconcile with the Cathars hostility to the idea of marriage and procreation, which entrapped new souls in the wicked world. It also seems fatuous to cast Godfrey de Bouillon as the descendant of the Davidic/Magdalenian/Merovingian bloodline and the Templars as that supposed bloodline's secret guardians, given a/ that de Bouillon's ancestors were staunch advocates of Papal authority and b/ that the Templars had a turbulent relationship with Godfrey's successors as King of Jerusalem, and always looked to the Papacy as their protector. (The said conspiracy theory, on the other hand, casts Rome as the great persecutor of Christ's supposed descendants.)
It must be remembered that Mary Magdalene was a legitimate saint also for Catholics, and there was nothing inherently heretical in venerating her. Her supposed relics had been claimed by the Benedictine Monks of Vezelay in Burgundy, Central France. The cult was in evidence there from the mid eleventh century. The abbey claimed that the relics had been brought there centuries before by a monk who had retrieved them from their original shrine near Aix in Provence, where Mary had supposedly been lain to rest after spending 30 years living as a hermit in a remote cave called la Sainte Baume. Vezelay became was a great Catholic pilgrimage centre in the Crusading era, its new church being commenced in the same year as the launching of the First Crusade. Later the armies of the Second and Third Crusades had been mustered in Vezelay. Mary Magdalene, then, could also be presented as a patron saint for Crusaders. (Crusading itself was widely regarded as a penitential exercise for its participants). It is somewhat surprising, therefore, how little evidence there is of Mary Magdalen's cult within the Order of the Temple.
Later, at their own heresy trials, the Templars were accused of believing that Preceptors could forgive sins, even though they were not ordained priests. This is the one accusation that was probably true- though it resulted from confusion rather than wilful heresy. This was the only charge the English Templars were ever convicted for, and once they recanted about it they were absolved and welcomed back into the Church (most going on to live quietly, scattered in various monasteries and subsisting on meagre pensions). In one of the Continental trials, a Neapolitan Templar named Galcerand de Teusum (who had admitted denying Christ, probably under torture) testified that lay absolution was also practiced (the prosecution tried to imply that this was to stop the Church and the outside world learning of the Order's wicked secrets). De Teusum reported that the Preceptor officiating would say 'I pray God that he will pardon your sins as he pardoned... Saint Mary Magdalene, and the thief who was put on the cross'. This, it seems, is the only mention of Mary Magdalene from the trials, and does not betray any excessive reverence for her. It reflects the orthodox view of her as a symbol of God's forgiveness. The prosecution made out, incidentally, that the phrase 'the thief who was on the cross' expressed the Templars' secret contempt for Jesus, but it could have just referred the penitent one of the two criminals who were crucified alongside Him. (The man who Christ told that he would be with Him in Heaven).
The Templars, though neutral, in fact seemed to err on the side of the northern 'crusaders' during the Albigensian wars, while their rivals the Knights Hospitaller, though neutral, did the opposite. The Hospitallers were closely tied to the branch of the house of St-Gilles in the Holy land, and remained loyal to Raymond VI in Toulouse. Count Raymond's alliance with the Crusaders did not last. The war degenerated into a territorial dispute, with Simon de Montfort, the ruthless leader of the Catholic armies, leading the attack on Raymond's land for his own aggrandisement. (De Montfort's army would kill King Pedro of Aragon who came to Raymond's aid. Ironically Pedro had become something of a Christian hero a year previously, as victor over the Moors at Navas de Tolosa).
While De Montfort besieged Toulouse, the Hospitallers even made Raymond an associate of their brotherhood, perhaps hoping to convince other Catholics to stay loyal to him too. The Templars, by contrast, were less supportive. When Raymond had his brother Baldwin hanged for treason, the Templars took down his body and gave it proper Catholic burial. The Preceptor of la Villedieu, meanwhile, protected the Catholic Bishop of Toulouse at his establishment. When he caught wind of a supposed Cathar plot against the Bishop, he had the suspected plotters beaten and expelled from the Preceptory. Meanwhile Simon de Montfort would stay at the Templar house in Montpellier while campaigning against the Cathars in 1215. The Templars may have been grudging hosts, but even so, this hardly suggests strong Cathar sympathies. De Montfort's armies ravaged the region year on year, but failed to quash doctrinal dissent completely. Later Louis VIII of France led a second crusade into the region. He aspired more to impose Capetian supremacy over Toulouse than to uphold the Catholic faith. Templars were among his retinue, although they did not participate in the slaughter.
The military actions were failing to uproot Catharism, so the Church tried another tact. Prior to the Albigensian Crusade the Pope had charged a Spanish Monk, Domingo de Guzman, with founding the Order of Friars Preachers, to counter the message of the Perfecti. Domingo died in 1221 and was soon canonised as Saint Dominic. Pope Gregory IX (1227-41) charged the Dominican Order with conducting the Inquisition, to root out and punish dissenters. Its main purpose was to obtain a confession from someone denounced as a heretic. Suspects would be imprisoned and their property confiscated, to be shared out with local nobility and those who had denounced the suspect. This policy encouraged local rulers to co-operate and ordinary people actively to inform on neighbours. (The system was wide open to abuse. It was also a system loaded against the defendant, who was allowed no advocate and against whom even criminals could give anonymous testimony.)
The presence of the Inquisitors and their myrmidons in the places they visited was much resented by the inhabitants; but they soon created a climate of fear that secured popular collaboration. Those who failed to assist the Inquisition were vulnerable to charges of abetting heresy. Torture was only officially sanctioned in their inquiries in 1252, in Pope Innocent IV's bull Ad Extripanda, but one imagines it was utilised long before. Favourite tools of these interrogator-monks were the rack and the strappado. The latter involved tying a suspects hands behind their back and hoisting them up over a beam or pulley on a chain attached to the wrists, before letting them fall in a series of agonising jolts. Other techniques included the application of flames to the soles of the feet with a movable iron screen to regulate heat intensity, and miscellaneous clamps, vices and screws to crush extremities or prise open orifices.
Heresy suspects, and those who had sheltered them would be rounded up, interrogated, tried, and when convicted, (as was invariably the case) handed to the secular arm for punishment. Under Gregory IX's statutes of 1231, those who confessed would face life imprisonment, while relapsed or recalcitrant heretics would face public burning. True Cathars, it seems, went joyfully into the flames, trusting that death would release their spirits from the snare of this material hell. The Inquisition thus effectively wiped out the Cathar Heresy, though it left a legacy of bitter resentment towards the Catholic Church in the Languedoc. What better way to destroy genuine faith, after all, than to enforce conformity to religious doctrines through terror?
Several defamatory rumours had become attached to the Cathars before the Albigensian war. These included the supposed Cathar belief that the begetting of children was sinful (procreation, for them, meant condemning another angelic soul in a vile material body). They therefore condemned marriage and encouraged sexual practices that would not result in conception. Whether this actually happened or not, Cathars confessed to Sodomy under Inquisition torture and it became accepted that heretics in general were guilty of it. The Inquisition also believed that the Cathars worshipped Satan in the form of a cat, and spat on the cross to show their contempt for the Crucified Christ. (Still wilder tales, - such as suggestions of incestuous orgies, child sacrifice and cannibalism- had also long been used to besmirch various heretical movements. Many of these details coalesced later into the Inquisition's conception of the Sabbat or Black Mass. In the witch hunting era, the Inquisition and its Protestant counterparts would use torture to gain confessions of attending such ghastly rites; this travesty continued well into the early modern period).
The Inquisition spread elsewhere, taking its demonological ideas and sewing the seeds of paranoia. An Inquisitor called Conrad of Magdeberg, for example, caused much trouble in the Rhineland, accusing all and sundry of worshipping a huge black cat. Conrad was eventually murdered on the road by an exasperated Franciscan monk, probably acting at the behest of local nobles who the Inquisitor had begun to trouble. Ultimately the Inquisition became a large bureaucracy, though, reigning in mavericks like Conrad. In France it was retained as part of the state's terror apparatus. The Grand Inquisitor, Guillaume de Paris, was also the personal confessor to King Philip IV (Philip the Fair). By this time (the early 1300s) the Inquisition was at risk of becoming a victim of it's own success, and could not justify its existence unless new threats to God's church could be found for it to act against. The King, meanwhile, was fearful about threats to his absolute authority. The Templars had also lost their purpose- with the loss of the Holy Land. They remained as an uncomfortable reminder of the neglected cause of Jerusalem. They also had amasses great land throughout France and beyond, and wealth that would go a long way to solving Philip IV's financial problems. Moreover, they had helped rebel barons depose a King in Cyprus, might they not one day try the same in the West? These were reasons enough for Philip to arrest them, to accuse them of heresy and to unleash the Inquisition against them.
Philip IV and his chief minister, Guillaume de Nogaret drew up a list of accusations. According to these accusations, the Templars made neophytes spit on the cross at their initiation ceremonies and renounce Christ. They worshipped a cat or a severed head (and wore chord belts that had touched the head) they gave indecent kisses and practiced ritualised sodomy. They disbelieved the Sacraments, they sought gain for their Order by illicit means, and Preceptors who were not ordained Priests heard confessions and gave absolution within the Order.
There were three factors in favour of the King and de Nogaret that enabled them to pull off their conspiracy to destroy the Templars. The first was the persistence of the rumours regarding the Cathars, most of which could be reflected in the accusations against the Templars, which would link the two groups in peoples minds. The second was the Inquisition still being in place. Their refined interrogation and torture technique meant that they could elicit confessions to almost anything from almost anyone. The third was the present weakness of the Papacy. Pope Clement V was all but a puppet of Philip IV. Clement V's predecessor Boniface VIII had been a zealous advocate of Papal Supremacy, which had led to a power struggle with Philip IV. It had come to a dramatic climax in 1303. Philip had sent Guillaume de Nogaret with a company of soldiers to Anagni, to arrest Boniface on fabricated charges of heresy, simony and the murder of the previous Pope, Celestine V. During the episode Pope Boniface VIII had been struck by one of the Colonna delegation accompanying the French soldiers (the Colonna family had long feuded with Boniface's Caetani clan). Boniface was subsequently rescued by his supporters but died four weeks later from trauma. Not even Clement V would lift the excommunication imposed on Guillaume de Nogaret for his role in the scandal.
Popular myth has it that the Templars protected some great secret that had Rome quaking in its boots. Yet it was not Rome that drove the persecution of the Templars. Rome was afraid not of them but of Philip IV. Philip had not consulted the Pope- in whose name he acted- before arresting the Templars. Numerous bishops, fearful for their own standing, left the Templars to the mercy of the King and the French Inquisition. Clement V himself was initially dismissive of the allegations and incensed by the violation of ecclesiastical rights. His cooperation was only secured later as the result of a mixture of bribery and intimidation from the French Court. The Archbishop of Sens, who oversaw the burning of those Templars who professed their innocence and rescinded their confessions, was a Royal appointee. Clearly then, the French Monarch and his advisors, and not the Catholic Church drove the persecution of the Templars.
Throughout the operation against the Templars, the excommunicated de Nogaret had to operate from the shadows. It is hard to think of another individual who inflicted more damage to the standing of the Church than this enigmatic lawyer and politician. In accusing first a Pope and then the foremost Crusader Order of heresy, he effectively turned the Catholic establishment's most damaging weapon against itself. According to Philip IV's propaganda machine (which de Nogaret largely directed), all this was done in the defence of the Faith, by loyal servants of Holy Mother Church. Philip, in reality, was no such thing. He wished to destroy the Templars to strengthen his own position, and to take their land. Guillaume de Nogaret surely encouraged King Philip's bold moves against the Church. There seems to be a reason for his personal animus against the Catholic establishment.
Guillaume De Nogaret would was born in St Felix de Carman, that same town near Toulouse where the Cathar Council was held, long before in 1167. The inquisitorial records for 1236 mention a Cathar minister called Raymond de Nogaret. In the 1440s, several Cathars would be burned alive in St Felix de Carman. Some speculate that De Nogaret's grandfather and parents were amongst them. (Guillaume de Nogaret was also denounced as a Patarin during the Anagni scandal- Patarin being a term for Cathars in Calabria). The irony, in the end, was that the man accusing the Templars of secretly adhering in some way to the Cathar heresy, had his own secret links to the Cathars. He was taking revenge where he could on the Catholic institution that had killed them.
It may have rankled with de Nogaret a little that he had to sup with the Devil to achieve his vengeance; and one wonders if he anticipated that the Inquisition would emerge stronger from the persecution of the Templars. The Inquisition was stronger, apparently vindicated, and poised to stay in business for centuries to come- by persecuting members of a spurious satanic conspiracy. The ensuing witch persecution might have been less wide reaching and destructive had not the trials of the Templars fostered paranoia about humans conspiring against Christianity under the Devil's command. If De Nogaret wanted personal revenge, though, the enduring consequences may not have concerned him excessively. He could not get at the Inquisition so had to transfer his wrath. The Templars had not been the organisation responsible for the persecution of the Cathars- they weren't the ideal group to attack as payback for the massacring of the sect. But equally these knights had hardly done anything to stop it. De Nogaret, who also gained materially from his role in the affair, would have derived some sense of satisfaction from making them suffer.
Many outrageous accusations were fabricated against the Templars,from sodomy and idolatry to consorting with demons. One of the few charges that stuck was relatively unsensational- the practice of lay absolution. In the course of this the Templar was said to beseech forgiveness from the master as God pardonned Mary Magdalene and the thief that was on the cross. This reveals a rather conventional conception of Mary Magdalene among the Templars as a penitent sinner and a symbol of redemption.
Since 1969 the Catholic Church has abandoned the view that Mary Magdalene was identical with Mary of Bethany, and it seems no longer to be official doctrine that the Magdalene was the penitent sinner who annoints Jesus in the Gospel of Luke.Gerard of Nazareth has lost his argument. The saint remains popular, and still attracts pilgrims both to Vezelay and St Maximin near Aix. The idea of her as the redeemed sinner lingers in the religious mainstream, while the Gnostic Magdalene has also made a comeback in popular culture. Since the publication of Baigent Lincoln and Leigh's the 'The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail', and various derivatives including a certain novel, the notion has been abroad that the Knights Templar discovered (perhaps under the ruins of Solomon's Temple, some proof not only of Magdalene's special status but also of a marriage to Christ and the existence of a bloodline, for which the Holy Grail supposedly served as a metaphor. Possession of this 'secret' according to the conspiracy, enabled the Templars to blackmail the Holy See securing their sudden rise to power from obscurity. One searches in vain for compelling evidence that the Templars found any such thing nor that they held wildly heterodox views on the Magdalene's status, even if Gerard's polemic raises the possibility that some of them accepted the Greek view (now also the Catholic view) of her distinctness from Mary of Bethany.
Ironically, meanwhile, the originators of the bloodline conspiracy take seriously the legends that the saint came to the Carmargue, and actually argue for identification of the two Marys. The far-fetched assertion was that Mary, Christ's widow came to the South of France bearing a son whose descendants married into the Merovingian dynasty, thus preserving the 'Davidic Line' through Clovis I and his heirs. (The legend of Mary Magdalene's coming to Gaul could not in fact be taken seriously, as Monsiegneur L. Duchesne demonstrated in the late nineteenth century). The holy bloodline theory goes on to represent Godfrioi de Bouillon as a scion of that supposed dynasty, thus having an ancient claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. There is little proof that Christ married Mary Magdalene or had a family. Though the theologian B. Thiering argued for this being the case (also that they divorced), coming to the conclusion on the basis of her idiosyncratic interpretations of the cryptic Dead Sea Scrolls, she failed to substantiate this or any other of her imaginative claims concerning the life of 'Jesus the Man'. It is unclear how the Cathar belief (if such there was) arose that Magdalene was the man Jesus' concubine. What is fairly clear is the view wasn't shared by the Templars, whose own monastic lifestyle was predicated on belief in a celibate Christ.
2023.03.23 06:17 FeistyImplement0730 RN who wants to start a home care business for the elderly
2023.03.23 06:06 Oldschool_1946 Patriots
Why don't we see any of these patriots on MSM snippets honoring Black History Month? The answer is oblivious.submitted by Oldschool_1946 to BidenIsNotMyPresident [link] [comments]
2023.03.23 05:43 Advanced_Falcon_2816 GTA 6 Map: What Could It Look Like?
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2023.03.23 05:29 menorahman100 Blasphemous Quotes from Freemasonry
"That which we must say to the crowd is, we worship a god, but it is the god one adores without superstition. To you sovereign grand inspector general, we say this and you may repeat it to the brethren of the 32nd, 31st and 30th degrees - the Masonic religion should be by all of us initiates of the high degrees, maintained in the purity of the Luciferian doctrine. If lucifer were not god, would Adonay (the God of the Christians) whose deeds prove cruelty, perfidy and hatred of man, barbarism and repulsion for science, would Adonay and His priests, calumniate Him? Yes, lucifer is god, and unfortunately Adonay is also God, for the eternal law is that there is no light without shade, no beauty without ugliness, no white without black, for the absolute can only exist as two gods. Darkness being necessary for light to serve as its foil, as the pedestal is necessary to the statue, and the brake to the locomotive. Thus, the doctrine of Satanism is heresy, and the true and pure philosophical religion is the belief in lucifer, the equal of Adonay, but lucifer, god of light and god of good, is struggling for humanity against Adonay, the god of darkness and evil"Recorded by A.C. De La Rive, La Femme et Lenfant dans La Franc-Maconnerie Universelle, Page 588. Cited from The question of freemasonry, ( 2nd edition 1986 by Edward Decker pp12-14)
"The dunces who led primitive Christianity astray, by substituting faith for science, reverie for experience, the fantastic for the reality; and the inquisitors who for so many ages waged against Magism (magic and sorcery) a war of extermination, have succeeded in shrouding in darkness the ancient discoveries of the human mind"Albert Pike [33rd degree Mason] 'Morals and Dogma' 732 (Note: Commander Albert Pike was Grand Master of the Central Directory at Washington, D.C., Grand Commander of the Supreme Council at Charleston, S.C., and Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry. He was an honorary member of almost every Supreme Council in the world, personally receiving 130 Masonic degrees)
"Masonry is the descendent of, or is founded upon, a divinely imparted religion which long antedates the prime date of creation as given in our Bible. It is all that remains to us of the first world religion which flourished in an antiquity so old that it is impossible to affix a date. It was the first unified religion... To this, such symbols as the pyramids, both in Egypt and South America, bear witness... The ancient mysteries were temporary custodians of the ancient truth and closely allied to the Masonic work of today... the relation of the Mysteries to Masonry has oft been recognized, and the golden thread of living continuity can be traced through them to modern Masonry. The Mysteries...are all parts of that ancient thread which has its origin in that primeval religion which terminates today in masonry"Foster Bailey [33rd degree Mason], 'The Spirit of Freemasonry' 30-2
"All antiquity believed ...in a Mediator or Redeemer, by means of whom the Evil Principle was to be overcome and the Supreme Deity reconciled to His creatures. The belief was general that he was to be born of a virgin and suffer a painful death. The Hindus called him Krishna; the Chinese, Kioun-tse; the Persians, Sosiosch; the Scandinavins, Balder; the Christians, Jesus; the Masons, Hiram"Pirtle, The [Masonic] Kentucky Monitor 14,15
"The religion of Freemasonry is not Christian"Albert Mackey [33rd degree Mason and Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the thirty third degree Scottish Rite], 'Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry'. 618
'That sacred and invisible bond that unites men of the most discordant opinions into one band of brothers, which gives one language to men of all nations and one altar to men of all religions, is properly, from the mysterious influence it exerts, denominated the mystic tie; and Freemasons because they alone are under its influence, or enjoy its benefits, are called brethren of the mystic tie'Albert Mackey [33rd degree Mason and Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the thirty third degree Scottish Rite], 'Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry'. Vol 2 778
"Masonry is regarded as the direct descendant, or as a survival of the mysteries...of Isis and Osiris in Egypt"Robert Freke Gould, History of Freemasonry 1:13
"Man is God in the making.."Manley P Hall. [33rd degree Mason] 'Lost keys of Freemasonry' 92
"Be still - and know - that I am God"'..'THAT I AM GOD'- the final recognition of the All in All, the unity of self with the Cosmos - the cognition of the Divinity OF THE SELF!"George H.Steinmetz, 'The Lost Word: Its hidden meaning 241-242
"The signs, symbols and inscriptions date from...the Sumerian civilizations..., Chaldea [Babylon], Assyria, Greece, Rome and even in Mexico and Yucatan... Some rites of the Scottish rite of Freemasonry of our Mother Jurisdiction have been in existence from time immemorial. For we teach the same grand truths, the same sublime philosophies...as those adepts of the ancient mysteries taught in their esoteric rites"Henry C. Clausen, 'Messages for a Mission' [the Supreme Council 33rd degree, A & ARFM, Mother Jurisdiction of the World, 1971] 5-7
"Freemasonry is the survivor of the ancient mysteries - nay, we may go further and call it the guardian of the mysteries"Bro. J.S.M.Ward. 'Freemasonry and the ancient gods' 347
"Man is never closer to God than when he kneels, spiritually naked, at the altar of Freemasonry"Masonic Record, June 1926 in an article by Bro. T.H.R. entitled 'What are our Landmarks'
"Masonic Services Association" series. vol.19 p14
"The Second Landmark is the Volume of Sacred Law, open in the Lodge. But the Bible is not, in freemasonry, more than one of the Great Lights, and never has been, for the reason that Masons are not required to believe its teachings...The stern fact is that we are constantly admitting Hindu%uFFFDs, Chinese, Mohammedans, Parsees and Jews, not one of whom believes in the Bible, and this forces the conclusion that Masonry regards the Bible only as a symbol"
"the whole includes God's revelation through the Bible, the Koran, the Vedas, etc.JSM Ward. Freemasonry and the ancient gods. P347
"Even our so called Christian degrees have taken a Christian colour merely because, in the main, we are Christians, and not because they are in essence Christian"
"The interpretation of the symbols of Freemasonry from a Christian point of view is a theory adopted by some, but one which I think does not belong to the ancient system. The principles of Freemasonry preceded the advent of Christianity. If Masonry were merely a Christian institution, the Jew, the Moslem, the Brahman and the Buddhist, could not consistently partake of its illumination. But its universality is its boast. In its language, citizens of every nation may converse; at its altar men of all religions may kneel; to its creed disciples of every faith may subscribe"Albert Mackey, [33rd degree Mason and Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the thirty third degree Scottish Rite] 'Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry'.
"Triangle - An important symbol in Masonry. 1. The equilateral triangle was adopted by all ancient nations as a symbol of Deity, and was regarded as the most perfect of figures. It constantly recurred in Craft Masonry as well as in the Royal Arch. 2. The right angled triangle was also regarded as an important figure. Among the Egyptians the base represented Osiris, or the male principle; the perpendicular, Isis, or the female principle; and the hypoteneuse, Horus, their son.R.H.MacKenzie, 'The Royal Masonic cylopedia, Rites, Symbolism and Biograghy' 743
"Are they seriously suggesting that all the clergy be compelled to renounce their vows made at their initiation and subsequent advancement in the craft."The Rev. Alexander Morris (when in May 1951, Dr. Hubert S. Box proposed that the Convocation of Canterbury should set up an inquiry into Freemasonry)
"The true Mason is not creed bound. He realizes with the divine illumination of his lodge, that as a Mason his religion must be Universal. Christ, Buddha or Mohammed. The name means little, for he recognizes only the light and not the bearer. He worships at every shrine, bows before every altar, whether in temple, mosque, pagoda or cathedral, and realizes with his true understanding the oneness of all spiritual truths. No true Mason can be narrow for his lodge is the divine expression of all broadness."(contrary to Matt.7 v 13-14) Manley P Hall [ 33rd degree Mason] 'Lost Keys of Freemasonry' 64,
"When the Mason learns that the key to the warrior on the block is the proper application of the dynamo of living power, he has learned the mystery of his craft. The seething energies of Lucifer are in his hands and before he may step onwards and upwards he must prove his ability to properly apply (this) energy."Manley P Hall [33rd degree Mason] 'Lost Keys of Freemasonry' 48,
'..the true Mason raises himself by degrees until he reaches heaven'- extract from the 28th degree lecture.
"There he stands without (outside) our portals, on the threshold of his new Masonic life, in darkness, helplessness and ignorance. Having been wandering amiss the errors and covered over with the pollutions of the outer and profane world, he comes to our door, seeking the new birth, and asking a withdrawal of the veil which conceals divine truth from his uninitiated sight"Albert Mackey, [33rd degree Mason and Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the thirty third degree Scottish Rite] 'The Manual of the Lodge' (105:20 cf. 13:5)
"Men have to decide whether they want a God like the ancient Hebrew Yahweh*, a partisan tribal god, with whom they can talk and argue and from whom they can hide if necessary, or a boundless, eternal, universal, undenominational, and international Divine Spirit so vastly removed from the speck called man, that he cannot be known, named or approached. So soon as man begins to laud his God and endow him with the most perfect human attributes such as justice, mercy, beneficence, etc. the Divine Essence is depreciated and despoiled... The Masonic test is a Supreme Being, and any qualification added is an innovation and distortion...Monotheism. violates Masonic principles, for it requires belief in a specific kind of Supreme Deity."\Note: the ancient caananite weather god is yahweh as taught by masons and higher critics such as Kittle and Gesenius, (a study of Gesenius will demonstrate this to be factual). Whatever, this does not make yahweh or any other god the Creator, whose name is Yahuah!*
"In this compound name an attempt is made to show by a co-ordination of divine names.. the unity, identity and harmony of the Hebrew, Assyrian and Egyptian god-ideas, and the harmony of the Royal Arch religion with these ancient religions. This Masonic 'unity of God' is peculiar. It is the doctrine that the different names of gods as Brahma, Jehovah, Baal, Bel, Om, On, etc., all denote the generative principle, and that all religions are essentially the same in their ideas of the divine."Rex Hutchens [33rd Mason] 'A Bridge to Light' 253 Published by the Supreme Council, Thirty-third Degree Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite of Freemasonry Southern Jurisdiction,
..'it is the body of the Holy Spirit, the Universal agent, the Serpent devouring his own tail'
"Masonry, like all the religions, all the mysteries, Hermericism and alchemy conceals its secrets from all but the adepts and sages, or the elect, and uses false explanations and misinterpretations of its symbols to mislead those who deserve to be misled, to conceal the truth, which it calls light, from them and to draw them away from it. The blue degrees (that is the craft degrees) are but the outer courts or portico of the temple. Part of the symbols are displayed there to the initiate, but he is intentionally misled by false interpretations. It is not intended that he shall understand them, but it is intended that he shall imagine he understand them. Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma 104,105 & 819)A comprehensive and concise book, 'A Bridge to Light' by DR. Hutchens, summarizes our Scottish Rite Degrees and assists in a ready understanding and appreciation of our ritual. Also it frequently returns to the great cornerstone of our order, Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma.. Taken from the official Supreme Council Masonic web site on 22/08/00 from a section entitled: 'A presentation concerning the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry'.
"However I have to say that in over 40 years membership of the order I have never been conscious of any conflict between my Christian belief and my membership of the Order. Yes it is true that Christ is not mentioned in our Craft degrees, but that does not mean He is not present at our meetings. If He dwells in the heart of the Christian, then He is present"[This would presupose that these men are born again of the Spirit of Yehovah, and are true believers with a biblically based faith! With so much blasphemy in the Lodge, how could any Mason, professing to be a true Christian remain?]Past Chaplain the Rev.H.R.Allen O.B.E M.A 'Freemasonry and the Church' 1992
"When later he (the Mason) is given Light, it means really that he is taught the principles of Occultism."Arthur H. Ward. 'Masonic symbolism and the Mystic Way' 149-150
"By the Lambskin [apron] the Mason is reminded of the purity of life and rectitude of conduct which are so essentially necessary to his gaining admission into the Celestial Lodge above [heaven] where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides"Albert Mackey, [33rd degree Mason and Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the thirty third degree Scottish Rite] 'Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry'. rev.ed "apron", 72-74
"Both Jesus Christ and God are very important in my life but I don't like the Christianity that links the two. I have found a lot of the answers to my questions in Freemasonry.Jim Davidson talking to 'Hello' magazine June 1996
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